Runaway gains continue as Zimbabwe Stock Exchange soars

Zimbabwe Stock exchange continues to soar, with gains of 9.3% yesterday (14 September) in its industrial index which closed at 379.95, after climbing 10.3% on 13 September, its biggest one-day gain according to the Herald newspaper. Market capitalization by close of 14 September was US$10.7bn.

The industrial index opened the year at 144.53, so it has more than doubled with 163% gain. The mining index has climbed from 58.51 to close 14 September at 84.65, up 45%. Most of the gain in the industrial index comes in the last 3 months, as shown on African Markets website.

Turnover was $5.2m on 14 September, with foreigners buying $1.5m and selling $4.3m in 162 trades, according to the excellent ZSE website . Meanwhile the Herald newspaper reported turnover on 13 September at $9.0m was one of the highest for the year with foreigners selling $3.5m worth of shares and buying just above $104,000.

Biggest volume on 14 September was in Delta Corporation, which traded $2.0m worth of shares as the price climbed 44 cents (19.9%) to $2.6656 after hitting a year high of $2.6675. On 13 September it had climbed 13% in $2.37m worth of trading, according to the Herald. Barclays Bank traded $1.1m with a price gain of 0.52 cents to close at $0.0852, up 6.5%. Other strong gains were brickmaker Willdale, up 27% in the day to 1 cent ($0.0100) after climbing 58% on 13 September. CBZ Holdings, First Mutual Properties and Nampak Zimbabwe which each scored 20% gain, while Old Mutual was up 19.9%.

Starafricacorproation climbed 14% to close at 2.5 cents ($0.0250) after a reported 67% gain on 13 September, Other top risers on 13 September, according to the Herald, were agribusiness Ariston up 52%, Zimre Property Investment up 37% and hotelier African Sun up 20%.

Seed Co is reportedly seeking to raise $30m and list on a regional exchange. Fast foods retailer Simbisa brands continues to trade under cautionary that it plans to list on the London Stock Exchange AIM board.

A week ago the rally was already in full swing as the ZSE market capitalization reached $8bn and the industrial index hit 286.63. The Herald reported on 11 September “Local investors have been buying into the equity market as a hedge against currency uncertainties and shortages. Most cash-rich Zimbabwean companies and individuals have been failing to access their cash locked in banks due to foreign currency shortages. Business, especially manufacturers and mines, have also been struggling to make foreign payments since the foreign currency shortages intensified at the beginning of 2016. This is the cash that is now being deployed into the stock market, considered a safe haven by many.”

The newspaper reported one investor worried that cash holdings at the banks, even in foreign currency, would not represent fair value “Investors are thus looking at hedging against this loss of value by buying into stocks.”

This web report on Charles Rukuni’s Insider Zim also worries that it is a rerun of 2007: “A stock market running on fumes and not any real fundamentals, a currency crisis and signs of inflation? We have seen this all before. In 2007, just like today, the ZSE became the world’s best performing market. Shares were up close to 600% by mid-year in 2007. Year-on-year, by April 2007, the stock market had risen a massive 12,000%. We now know it was all a deception; it was only going up because investors had nowhere else to put their Zimbabwe dollars, whose worth was evaporating fast. Then, as now, it did not matter that a company was performing badly.”

Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) CEO resigns

The CEO of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX), Ermias Eshetu, has tendered his resignation, according to a report in Ethiopia’s English weekly newspaper The Reporter. He will stay until a successor is found.

His decision took people by surprise, as he was publicizing the new working procedures he was planning to introduce in ECX. The resignation came after a stringent evaluation by the Board, which lasted the whole day. “The evaluation dwelled on the performance of the trading floor (ECX) and on the issue of who should leave and who should remain in office. The CEO tendered his resignation letter in the wake of the in-depth evaluation,” sources told The Reporter. It is part of Government efforts “to identify the weaknesses of ECX and reform the organization”.

The ECX management declined to comment to The Reporter.

The ECX was founded by agricultural economist Eleni Gabre-Madhin in 2008. Ermias had joined the ECX in January 2015, taking over from Anteneh Abraham, former vice president of Abyssinia Bank, who had resigned due to illness.

Electronic trading on ECX began in July 2015 and by January 2017 had replaced 89% of the open outcry trading, using a bespoke software built by Ethiopian engineers. According to a news report, ECX had started commissioning e-trading centres in different regions, including 3 set to be operational in the second quarter of 2017 and 4 were to follow. In the 2015-16 fiscal year (to July), the exchange traded 632,000 metric tons of commodities, worth ETB23 bn. They trained 760 users.

Ermias, 42, previously served Zemen Bank as Vice President for Marketing and Corporate Services since 2007. He lived for 20 years in UK, gaining technical and leadership experience at firms such as global IT giants IBM, Alcatel, Orange and MicroStrategy. He has a Master’s degree in international business from University of Manchester Management Business School and a Bachelor’s with honours in Computation from University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology.

Ermias Eshetu (photo from http://innovation-village.com)

Do African commodities exchanges achieve the desired results?

The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) was set up with backing from the Ethiopian Government. In a very readable 2012 paper by the founder and first CEO Eleni Gabre-Madhin outlining the origins, aims and implementation of ECX, she mentions the Government backing in replacing laws so that trade in commodities including coffee (which makes up 35% of Ethiopia’s exports from 2000-2014), has to go through the exchange, and the determined resistance from those who had previously dominated the export trade.

Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (photo from http://africabusinesscommunities.com)

She mentions funding: “Five initial donors — the US Agency for International Development, the Canadian International Development Agency, the World Bank, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and the United Nations Development Programme — committed US$9.2 million in just two weeks. This figure grew over the years as commitments increased. The World Food Programme and the European Union joined the list, and donor funding eventually reached US$29 million.” Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is mentioned in later articles as a donor.

Since the early days of ECX, payment has been guaranteed the day after purchase and there is a proud record of zero defaults (as on nearly all regulated exchanges worldwide). This is a big change on earlier problems faced by farmers and others with many buyers reneging on contracts. In addition Eleni’s aimed that the exchange should transform agricultural marketing countrywide, and she oversaw the construction of a host of modern regional warehouses and transport.

On the negative side, a news report in January 2017 in local The Reporter newspaper mentions ECX users reporting problems including increasing contraband and quality compromises by bribing the “cuppers” who grade the commodities.

A study by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in May 2017 suggests that with regard to coffee, the ECX had not brought enough transformation: “Before the establishment of the ECX, Ethiopia had a fairly well-functioning coffee auction floor in Addis Ababa… Second, the strict regulations that the ECX has introduced into the country’s coffee market have resulted in higher transaction costs. These costs could potentially cancel out the benefits of some of the ECX’s innovations, such as electronic payment systems. Finally, the Ethiopian coffee sector continues to face some inherent challenges that are not affected by the ECX—namely, weak infrastructure and low productivity”.

In February 2017 The Economist published an article about African commodity exchanges dubbing them “high tech, low impact”. It noted that ECX had not moved beyond spot trading since 2008 and futures contracts to help farmers manage price fluctuations are far behind the 5-year target.

The Economist verdict: “The Government made it viable by mandating that almost all trade in coffee and some other commodities go through the exchange. This might not be possible elsewhere. A monopoly imposed by fiat makes it more like a state marketing board than an exchange, says Thomas Jayne, an economist at Michigan State University.

“Another model might be the Agricultural Commodity Exchange for Africa in Malawi, which was set up privately in 2006 at the request of an association of smallholder farmers. But its volumes remain low. And its concentration on staple foods such as maize and soya leaves it vulnerable to the sort of government interventions that can sink exchanges. Trading in staples tends to be politically sensitive in times of food scarcity.

“Setting up national exchanges may be the wrong approach. The Johannesburg Stock Exchange plans to introduce a regional contract for Zambian white maize later this year. For lucrative export crops like coffee, well-established offshore exchanges may make more sense than starting from scratch at home. Better a functioning exchange somewhere else than a disappointing one on the doorstep.”

Strate’s CEO Monica Singer steps down to focus on blockchain

Monica Singer, the former CEO of South African central securities depository Strate, stepped down at the end of August 2017. Monica had been the project manager of Strate since its inception, and has led the organization for nearly 20 years. She will concentrate full time on blockchain.

Maria Vermaas, who has been Head of the Legal and Regulatory Division since the start of Strate, has been appointed as Interim CEO. The long-standing executive team will continue to drive strategic objectives, according to an announcement from Strate, which adds that Monica is leaving “to fulfil her dream of living in Cape Town and to pursue new opportunities”.

“Monica’s entrepreneurial spirit, together with her visionary leadership” drove the introduction of electronic settlement for South Africa’s financial markets. Strate is proud of “being a Conscious Company that creates shared value for all stakeholders” and globally recognized as one of the most progressive CSDs.

Monica says (in the statement): “I have always had a passion for innovation and technology that drives societal change. With the potential disruption that the financial markets may face, particularly with disruptive technologies like blockchain, I will continue to research to stay ahead of developments which may lead me to consulting on these topics.”

She has been key in several networks that share ideas internationally including as Vice President of the Africa & Middle East Depositories Association (AMEDA), over 18 years in the International Securities Services Association (ISSA), World Forum of CSDs (WFC) and Americas’ Central Securities Depositories Association (ACSDA).

Strate Chairman Rob Barrow, comments: “The Board, together with the Executive team and staff, would like to thank Monica for her contribution to Strate and the legacy that she has left behind. We would like to wish her all the best for her future endeavours.”

Full time in blockchain
According to this news story by Michael de Castillo on Coindesk, Monica is devoting her considerable energies “to dedicate her career to bringing blockchain to industries from finance and insurance to medicine and retail”.

Monica Singer: Blockchain is coming and its going to change the world (Photocredit: coindesk)

“In her first conversation with the media since her resignation, Singer explained how she believes the tech could help her finally cut out what she describes as ‘unnecessary middlemen.’

“Singer told CoinDesk: ‘I’m so in love with blockchain, that the only thing I’m doing, all the time, is telling the world, “Guys, wake up! This is coming, and this is going to change the world.”’ According to the story, Monica will use her global contacts to widen her interest beyond the financial sector. The article mentions ethereum startup ConsenSys and digital ledger startup Ripple among the “fintech” companies Monica is interested in working with.

She still believes CSDs can provide important services, even if blockchain means they will “not have a role to play” in the blockchain world. She is set to speak at the Sibos banking conference in October on blockchain in the cash and securities settlement space and at the World Federation of CSDs in Hong Kong in November.

It quotes her saying: “I love saying to people: ‘Give me a brief description of your industry.’ I can quickly tell them in which way that industry will be affected by this new, incredible technology. So, that’s what I need to do.

“I was the person who moved South Africa’s financial markets from paper to digital.. When I discovered blockchain, I thought this is exactly what we need in the world.”

Brief history of clearing and settlement in South Africa
Johannesburg Stock Exchange rang the final bell on 108 years of open-outcry trading on 7 June 1996. Most recently trading had been in a huge hall at the bottom of its then headquarters in Diagonal Street, so the noise of trading filled the whole building when the market got busy. From market open on 10 June all equity trading has been on the automated Johannesburg Equity Trading system. As volumes increased, stockbroker back offices talked about “how many feet of work do you have?” referring to the huge piles of share certificates and transfer forms stacked high on desks, while the motorcycle delivery drivers at the back of Diagonal Street and Kerk Street, Johannesburg, got ever busier.

Electronic clearing and settlement were urgently needed but the banks that dominate this aspect of capital markets had each invested in their own systems. They had further formed the Bond Market Association to create a self-regulating bond exchange in 1990 and had worked with the South African Reserve Bank the same year to form UNEXcor to set up an electronic settlement system using a CSD. The first fully electronic settlement through UNEXcor and the CSD (called CD Ltd) had been on 26 October 1995.

Monica, famous for long-term vision backed by unstoppable energy, was brought in to break the logjam and move the market forward in 1998. Gold-mining group Harmony was the first equity on the JSE to move to full dematerialization of securities in 1999 and the whole market followed in orderly stages.

According to a brochure by Strate a few years ago: “The transition to an efficient electronic-settlement system increased market activity and improved the international perception of the South African market by reducing settlement and operational risk in the market, increasing efficiency and ultimately reducing costs. Accordingly, by heightening investor appeal, Strate has enabled South Africa to compete effectively with other international markets and not just those of emerging markets.

“Since 2000, Strate has used the South African Financial Instruments Real-time Electronic Settlement system (SAFIRES), an adaptation of the Swiss securities settlement system (SECOM), operated by SIX SIS Ltd, to continuously provide investors with secure and efficient settlement of equities.”

UNEXcor merged with Strate in 2003 and as the platform became more aged, Strate began market consultation to replace the technology and move to a Securities Ownership Register for bonds.

Participants set up the Money Market Forum in 2002 for dematerialization of money-market securities and awarded the contract to do this to UNEXcor, which devolved to Strate after the merger. After extensive market consultation, Strate developed the business requirement and employed Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) to develop the code. Successful testing was completed on 1 October 2008 and Rand Merchant Bank issued the first electronic security to Strate via FirstRand Bank in November 2008. Electronic settlement of newly issued money market securities began in the second half of 2009.

The latest transformation was the switch to T+3 settlement across the South African capital market, carried out successfully on 11 July 2016 and profiled on this blog.

Kenya election results – early stockbroker comment

Hasnain Malik, Global Head of Equities Research at the specialist frontier markets investment bank Exotix Capital, comments:

“Kenyatta’s provisional win will soothe those investors who feared a leftist shift in economic policy. But the most important issues are ahead of us: Does Odinga concede peacefully? His initial rhetoric suggests there is a risk he does not. The key point then is whether Odinga looks to the courts for review, as in the 2013 scenario, mobilizes protesters, which would bring risks of a 2008 type scenario, or concedes defeat.

“Next, from a financial markets perspective, focus will shift to whether Kenyatta’s coalition has established a sufficient majority in Parliament and among the governors to repeal the interest rate cap law.

“Odinga’s own coalition allies may view his third loss at the polls as a chance to supercede him for the next election.”

Vodacom Tanzania’s $213m IPO results due 7 August

According to the latest timetable on the website of Vodacom Tanzania, the extended $213 million initial public offer (IPO) of shares closed on 28 July. Shares are due to be allotted, the register delivered to the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE) and the offer results announced on Monday, 7 August.

Refunds and CSD receipts will be printed on 14 August and the listing and trading of shares will be on 15 August. The offer had been extended previously, see our June story here , most recently from 10 July.

A total of 560m shares had been offered at TZS850 each, for an offer value of TZS476bn. It is the biggest IPO so far in 2017 on African capital markets.

The IPO follows the Electronic and Postal Communications Act of 2010 (EPOCA) which requires all telecom companies to list, and the June 2016 Finance Act requiring them to list at least 25% on the DSE to boost domestic ownership. According to news reports the law was changed in June (Finance Act 2017) to allow foreigners to participate.

According to a Business Report article, Vodacom spokesperson Byron Kennedy said in July that opening to international investors: “.. is a positive move for the more than 40,000 Tanzanians that have invested in the IPO as it is expected to improve liquidity of the Vodacom Tanzania shares once they are listed.”

Vivek Mathur, the chief operating officer for Vodacom’s international business, said in a prospectus in February that the capital raising and listing were in line with the government’s intention to strengthen the country’s telecommunications sector to play a key role as the engine of economic growth and socio-economic development: “This process also aims to widen financial inclusion among Tanzanians, and to economically empower the people of Tanzania.”

Reuters reports that two other major telecoms operators, Millicom’s subsidiary Tigo and the local business of India’s Bharti Airtel, have also submitted prospectuses to the regulator the Capital Markets Supervisory Authority CMSA and are awaiting approval for their IPOs.

Nigerian Stock Exchange’s new Nasdaq market surveillance

The Nigerian Stock Exchange has gone live with a new market-surveillance platform powered by SMARTS, a solution supplied by Nasdaq.

Tinuade Awe, General Counsel and Head of Regulation, NSE, said in an NSE press release: “As we enter the growth phase of the development of our market, including the introduction of new asset classes such as derivatives, there will be the imperative of processing significant volumes of market information in real-time to detect anomalies. The SMARTS technology, which we have successfully deployed, allows our team to proactively analyze patterns and trends to make sense of the vast amounts of data for investigative purposes and protection of investors, while strengthening the integrity of our market.”

The technology lets the Nigerian bourse proactively monitor market manipulation (including spoofing and layering), detect and deter manipulative tendencies, gather intelligence, carry out monitoring and analysis of traders, conduct multi-asset and cross-market surveillance, and execute risk-based supervision of flagged participants. The new system went live in July.

According to Nasdaq, the SMARTS Surveillance solutions are used at 47 marketplaces, 17 regulators and 140+ market participants across 65 countries and are used by over 3,500 compliance professionals. They have been used for real-time, cross-market, cross-asset surveillance for over 22 years.

Tony Sio, Head of Exchange & Regulator Surveillance, Market Technology at Nasdaq, said: “SMARTS performs universal surveillance of all asset classes and provides a strong platform for NSE to develop new products such as derivatives. We look forward to a long partnership with the NSE as the Nigerian markets evolve.”

CEO Oscar Onyema shows top managers of Nasdaq the NSE trading floor a few years ago. (Credit: businessdayonline)

South Africa’s securities exchange war goes to court

Court is the next battleground in a contest to transform the securities exchange landscape in South Africa. Newly licensed exchange 4AX, which is not yet operational, has launched a High Court application to set aside both the decisions of the FSB regulator and its Appeals Board to give a licence to new exchange ZAR X, according to Moneyweb .

Last September the Registrar of South Africa’s Financial Services Board (FSB) awarded licences to ZARX (Pty) Ltd (ZAR X) and 4 Africa Exchange (Pty) Ltd (4AX) (see our story here). The JSE and 4AX appealed against ZAR X’s licence, but in February 2017 the FSB Appeals Board dismissed the appeal, saying that ZARX and the FSB had complied fully with the Financial Markets Act 2012 (FMA), and awarding full costs to both ZARX and the FSB (see another Moneyweb article). ZAR X settled its first trade in February 2017, delayed from an initial September launch date. Its first listing was agribusiness Senwes. 4AX is not yet trading.

In February Donna Nemer, JSE Director of Capital Markets, said the JSE will fully respect and abide by the decision: “We are still very committed to the market and the participants in this market, and will cooperate fully in the debate on how we should be evolving going forward,” she said. “We will continue the work we are doing with the regulator and all the market participants, including the new exchanges, to maintain the high quality capital markets for which South Africa is really well known.” The JSE is not joining the new court case which 4AX has launched in the South Gauteng High Court to set aside both the decisions of the FSB Registrar and the FSB Appeals Board.

Also in waiting is exchange A2X, which has a licence application with the FSB. For more background on 4AX see our story.

Why another exchange?
The new bourse ZAR X has 3 listed securities and 9 authorized market participants or brokers, according to its website. It says a number of listings are in the pipeline.
According to Geoff Cook, cofounder and director of ZAR X, writing in Business Day newspaper this month: “Nowhere is radical change more desperately needed in SA than in the capital markets. The model that has dominated for more than 60 years is stagnant, with no broadening of the capital markets. It is also hopelessly skewed against the private investor.”
Volumes had grown of trading over the counter (OTC) in shares in black economic empowerment schemes for big companies such as MTN, Vodacom, Multichoice, Sasol and Imperial. Other OTC schemes were being operated as restricted shareholder platforms such as large agricultural cooperatives Senwes, TWK and KWV, while a few other companies sought liquidity at low cost for a limited spread of shareholders.

Geoff Cook, ZAR X Head Markets and Regulations (credit ZAR X)


ZAR X co-founder and CEO Etienne Nel created a platform called Equity Express for the OTC market. In July 2014 the FSB issued Board Notice #68 which effectively compels the OTC equity trading market to alter methodology and operate through a licensed exchange in terms of the FMA.
ZAR X works with a pre-funded model, so that cash is prepaid (deposited into the system before a trade) and a seller’s shareholding is pre-cleared before concluding a transaction. This means a huge reduction in settlement risk. Securities are held in a segregated depository account at a central securities depository (CSD), as required by the FMA, with a CSD participant facilitating clearing. The trade settles on t+0 or real time.
According to Cook: “Only severe disruption will return the financial markets to any sense of reality and social relevance. That disruption has arrived. Brokers can now execute a R1,000 order profitably through a world-leading T+0 prefunded execution model that does not require settlement risk capital, in which trading and administration applications are provided at minimal cost and where live data is free to all. Safe custody fees are zero and fees are only paid on conclusion of a transaction.
“The equity market is too concentrated and the debt market remains inaccessible and opaque. Despite there being nearly 1,300 collective investment schemes as well as many broker-managed discretionary portfolios, allocations are nearly all aligned to a limited number of old economy securities. Passive investment products such as index trackers simply compound the concentration.”
Cook says that regulation and the funding imbalance towards collective investment schemes means innovative small and medium and medium-sized companies will struggle to raise capital from asset managers. They need direct access to retail investors or bespoke asset managers who can invest smaller amounts. Asset managers are restricted by the size of their portfolios to investing in securities with large market capitalization.
He says the new exchange will mean that listings of companies with market capitalization of around R200m will become more common.
Cook claims that on average less than 0.5% of daily market volume on the JSE is retail-driven with less than 300,000 active retail clients, across all brokers, loaded within the JSE’s broker deal accounting (BDA) system. He says 30% of trading volume comes from brokers who collocated or moved their trading systems physically closer to the JSE trading engine in order to profit by millisecond time advantages. According to its website: “No high frequency trading, derivatives or short selling will be allowed. ZAR X has deliberately structured fees in such a manner that we wish to encourage investing rather than trading and, in so doing, promote savings.”
“Nearly all equity listings om the JSE are now done by way of private placement, which requires a minimum investment of R100,000 per subscriber. Offers to the public are rare as brokers in the conventional system cannot facilitate smaller retail client transactions profitably. With high costs and insufficient order flow brokers focus on providing discretionary managed portfolios, which attract higher fees but have higher financial entry requirements.
“The ‘uninvested’ retail investor is therefore totally excluded from directly participating in the capital market. Their only access is indirectly via a collective investment scheme that, if they did, would further perpetuate the shrinking of our capital market.
“The concentration of order flows to fewer institutional brokers is detrimental to efficient and transparent market pricing. With thin net margins, institutional brokers use their balance sheets to secure revenue flow by engaging in principal trading, high-frequency trading (HFT), and facilitation trading, including dark pools.”

Stokvels – South Africa’s $3.8bn savings pool
Cook claims there is huge potential for retail investors to buy securities: “Stokvels, whose members are active savers and investors, have more than 2m members. The Zion Christian Church has about 4-million contributing members. The potential size of the ’uninvested’ retail market is unknown, but I would suggest it is in excess of R700bn. The market system has ignored it.”
ZAR X also hopes to work with other exchanges “particularly in Africa”.
Stokvels are a big part of life in South Africa, with estimated 810,000 stokvels and 11.5m members, with a stokvel economy worth R49bn ($3.8bn), according to the National Stokvel Association of South Africa. There is even a comedy show called Stokvel on DSTV’s Zambezi Magic.

Stokvel comedy, Zambezi Magic DSTV.

Namibian SX and Bank of Namibia poised to launch paperless

The Namibian Stock Exchange and the central Bank of Namibia are working together to create a central securities depository (CSD) for equities, bonds and bills traded. They are waiting for laws and regulations to be passed to get the new system operational.

According to Kazembire Zemburuka, Deputy Director: Corporate Communications at the Bank of Namibia, quoted in a Southern Times newspaper article: “In an effort to develop the domestic capital market, the Bank of Namibia and the Namibian Stock Exchange have collaborated to jointly create a Central Security Depository company that will be licensed by NAMFISA (regulator) to hold and safeguard financial instruments in electronic format.”.

He said the Central Security Depository (CSD) Company is already in existence and has a Board of Directors comprising representatives from the two institutions. Following industry-wide consultations, systems requirements for the Namibian CSD were developed and a vendor has been appointed to provide a system. It will cater for both equities and bonds.

“Full implementation of the system awaits the finalisation of the necessary legislation and regulations. This process is already at an advanced stage,” explained Zemburuka. The company will provide electronic settlement of equities and bonds transactions concluded on the NSX and settle transactions in money market securities. It will be regulated by the Namibian Financial Institutions Supervisory Authority (NAMFISA).

Earlier, Tiaan Bazuin the NSX CEO told Namibian Economist newspaper why the 2 institutions are working together: “It is not a requirement to work jointly, it is preferred as it is a national project, in fact we have a market steering committee with all the market participants involved, including the banks, asset managers [amongst others].”

Interested stakeholders would be able to join as shareholders in future. “We have already indicated once it is up and running, others will also be able to join as shareholders if they want to. Typically some market participants wish to have a strategic stake in financial market infrastructure.”

In many African countries there are often two CSDs, with the central bank and the exchange each running their own systems, but it is much more efficient and reduces risk if both are integrated and built to work seamlessly with the capital markets trading such as the securities exchanges. Bank of Namibia and the local banks have worked together over decades and built advanced payment systems between the banks. Similar systems extending across most other countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and it is hoped eventually that crossborder securities trading will also become more widespread.

Since the NSX was founded, it has operated using physical or paper certificates representing ownership of equities and bonds. It set up a very streamlined system for this, settling domestic equities on T+5 and South African stocks on T+3, and working closely with the banks involved in including global custodians.

Only treasury bills are paperless. Dual-listed South African and other shares are settled on the home country central securities depository, for example Strate in South Africa.

Vodacom Tanzania wrapping up $213m IPO on Dar es Salaam bourse

Some 40,000 Tanzanians subscribed for the TZS476 billion ($213 million) initial public offer (IPO) of Vodacom Tanzania Ltd, part of South Africa’s Vodacom Group. The figure came from company’s MD, Ian Ferrao, quoted in the Citizen newspaper.

It is the largest IPO in the history of the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE) and attracted many first-time buyers.

The company says it has 12.4m customers and 31% market share of a telecoms market it estimated was worth $996m. It says TZS2.6 trillion ($1.17bn) is transacted every month by over 7m customers of its M-pesa mobile money solution. It had offered 560m shares (25% of the company) at TZS850 each. The IPO opened on 9 March and was extended for 3 weeks after the closure date of 19 April and ended 11 May. The announcement of results was due on 26 May, and the listing was expected on 12 June 2017 but has not yet been reported. According to news reports, the Capital Markets and Securities Authority (CMSA) is busy with verification, according to Orbit Securities which is Vodacom’s lead advisor.

Mr Simon Juventus, General Manager of Orbit, said the time extension meant more investors could be reached: “This time around we reached many investors unlike the first six weeks … the progress was good.”

The IPO follows the Electronic and Postal Communications Act of 2010 (EPOCA) which requires all telecom companies to list, and the June 2016 Finance Act requiring them to list at least 25% on the DSE to boost domestic ownership, with foreigners barred.

So far only Vodacom is busy with the process. On 1 June, President John Magufuli said that telecoms licences would be revoked if telecom companies did not list on the Dar es Salaam bourse saying they made enough profit to pay the fines of TZS300m and ordered the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) to act tough against telcos that do not list.

According to the President, as reported in Daily News: “Listing at the bourse will enhance transparency and enable the Government to collect its fair share of revenues,” He noted that Ethiopia’s state-owned monopoly telephone company has 30m-35m subscribers and made $1.5bn profit. Tanzania Telecommunications Company Ltd (TTCL) has not paid any dividends since shares were sold to foreign investors in 1990s.

Other companies which list are Airtel (Bharti Airtel Ltd of India and Government each offered to sell 12.5% of the shares), Tigo (local subsidiary of Millicom International Cellular SA of Luxembourg) and Maxcom Maxcom Africa (MaxMalipo), which have presented their prospectus to the CMSA. According to Daily News, the Tanzania Communciations Regulatory Authority (TCRA) says there are 86 tele-firms which that s must list. andOthers include TTCL, Halotel Tanzania, Zantel and Smart. Finance Minister Philip Mpango proposed that smaller companies should be exempted from IPOs as he presenting the Finance Bill 2017 to Parliament.

Opening the IPOs to foreigners
Mpango on 22 June told parliamentarians that Government would bring legislation to allow foreign investors to buy shares in telecommunications companies listing on the DSE. According to Bloomberg , after the IPO stalled.

The combined value of expected telco listings would be $1bn, compared to stock exchange capitalization of about $8.4bn. The Daily News reported that the law change would probably be through a 2017/18 Financial Bill to amend EPOCA.
“We want to open up the mandate of companies listing 25% of their shares to allow Tanzanians, Tanzanian companies, Tanzanians in the diaspora, joint ventures between Tanzanians and foreigners, East Africans or companies owned by East Africans, or citizens from other countries.”

The article quotes George Fumbuka, CEO at stockbroker Core Securities: “We are now doing it the way it should’ve been done. I can understand trying to give special treatment for locals, but in the stock market it should be open market.” He said he thought Vodacom was overpriced and an open market would encourage compaies to price IPOs “more competitively”.

George Kalebaila, director for telecoms and Internet of Things in Africa at International Data Corporation, was quoted by The East African newspaper: “Equity markets need time to develop and I think 25 per cent is rather ambitious, as there is limited equity in local hands waiting to be invested. That’s why you see the shareholding structure of a couple of large organisations favour wealthy and politically connected individuals, who have access to capital.” Foreigners will also be able to buy the shares after the IPO

System to track electronic payments

On 1 June President Magufuli launched Electronic Revenue Collection System (e-RCS), which will be operated by Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) and Zanzibar Revenue Board (ZRB). The system is designed to track and directly collect Value Added Tax (VAT) and Excise duty on all electronic transactions by communication companies and financial institutions, with the views of enhancing efficiency in the collection of government revenues.

Tanzania Revenue Authority Commissioner General Charles Kichere said only 3 companies – Halotel, Smart and TTCL – have so far joined e-RCS. He said it was an efficient tool for tracking and collecting revenues through electronic payments without human intervention.